ICT: What makes your mobile phone tick | How Does It Work?


A cell phone is an essential element of our daily life for most of us. In any case, I'm sure you've always wondered how a mobile phone makes a call and why there are so many distinct kinds of mobile communications.

Learn more about how mobile phones communicate. The microphone on your phone picks up your voice when you talk into it. The microphone uses a MEMS sensor and an IC to convert your voice into a digital signal. Your voice can be heard in the digital stream as a series of zeros and ones. These 0s and 1s are received by an antenna inside the phone and then transmitted as electromagnetic waves. Zeros and ones are transmitted by changing the wave's amplitude, frequency, phase or combinations of these characteristics. By using low and high frequencies, zero and one are conveyed, for example. It would be possible to make a call if you could transmit these electromagnetic waves to your friend's phone. Electromagnetic waves, on the other hand, have a limited range. Environmental considerations such as the presence of physical items or electrical equipment reduces their power. Due to the Earth's curved structure, even if there were no such concerns, electromagnetic waves would not be able to continue forever. Using the cellular technology concept, cell towers were introduced to address these challenges. An area is divided into hexagonal cells for cellular technology, with a tower and frequency slot for each cell.

Optical fiber cables are typically used to connect these cell towers to each other. In order to enable national or worldwide connectivity, these optical fiber cables are buried under the ground or in the oceans. The cell tower in your area picks up the EM waves from your phone and converts them into high-frequency light pulses. The base transceiver box at the foot of the tower receives and processes these light pulses. After processing, your speech signal is sent to the tower where you want to hear it. The destination tower receives the pulses and then emits electromagnetic waves, which are picked up by your friend's phone. Your friend hears your voice as a result of this signal going through a reverse process. There is a wired component to mobile communications, thus it's true that they are not completely wireless. To put it simply, this is how mobile communications work. However, we deliberately left a major question unsolved. When your tower sends a signal to your friend's tower, the communication is successful. The question is, how does your tower know which cell tower region your friend is located in? Well, the cell tower relies on a mobile switching center for this task. In a cellular network, the MSC serves as the aggregation point. Let us first take a closer look at the MSC. When you buy a SIM card, all of your subscription information is registered with a specific MSC (Mobile Subscriber Identity).

This MSC is where you'll call home. Information such as service plans, current location, and activity status are all stored in the home MSC. Foreign MSCs are used to refer to MSCs that serve you outside of your home MSC's service area. Entering another MSC region requires communication with your primary MSC. Your home MSC is always aware of where you are in the MSC system. There are a variety of methods used by the MSC to detect which cell location a subscriber is in inside the MSE. After a predetermined amount of time, you can update the location of your subscribers. The phone's location is updated every time it crosses a predetermined number of towers. The final one is when the phone is turned on. For the sake of clarity, let's look at an actual example of each of these steps. Say Emma asks to speak with John. As soon as Emma dialed John's phone number, a call request was sent to Emma's MSC. The request will be sent to John's home MSC after receiving John's phone number. For the time being, John's MSC is verifying his current MSC. As long as John is in his home MSC, the call requests will be forwarded to his current cell location, where they'll be checked against any other calls John is currently on or whether or not his mobile phone has been turned off. Everything is going to go according to plan if John's phone rings and the connection is successfully connected. Nevertheless, if John is not in his local MSC, the call request is simply forwarded to the foreign MSC.

The foreign MSC will use the previously described technique to locate John's phone and will then make the call with him on the phone. The importance of the frequency spectrum in mobile phone communication will now be discussed. The frequency ranges allotted to each digital communication subscriber are used to transmit zeros and ones. Despite this, there are billions of cellular phone users squeezing into a little amount of frequency band. Two technologies come together to address this problem: frequency slot distribution and two methods of multiple access. In the first method, each cell tower has a unique frequency slot given to it. This frequency slot is effectively shared by all of the active users in the cell area when using the multiple-access approach.

Finally, we arrive at the crux of the matter. Is it because there are so many distinct types of mobile phone technology? Users were able to carry a phone without a cord for the first time when 1G was released. However, 1G had two fundamental flaws.

In the beginning, there was an issue with the analog wireless transmissions. External sources can easily modify analog signals. So, it had a poor quality of speech and a low level of security. Using frequency division multiple access, which is inefficient in using available spectrum, was another issue. As a result of these circumstances, the second generation of mobile communications was born. TDMA and CDMA technologies were employed in the 2G network.

SMS and internet browsing were also pioneered by the second generation. A major goal of 3G technology was to increase data transfer speeds. WCD multiple access and increased bandwidth were employed. The 3G speed of two Mbps enabled for the transfer of data for applications such as GPS, movies, phone calls, and so on. 3G was a major milestone in the evolution of the smartphone from a simple phone to a high-end device. Then came 4G, with its 20 to 100 Mbps download and upload rates. High-definition movies and television might use this. OFD multiple access and MIMO technology allowed for this increase in speed. Multi-antenna mobile phones and cell towers are used in MIMO technology to increase data transfer speeds.

Millimeter waves and upgraded MIMO technology will be used in the upcoming 5G mobile communication system. It will enable the internet of things, such as driverless cars and smart homes, to function smoothly. Want to know how a touchscreen works? Read on. Pay attention to this. Please accept my sincere appreciation.

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